Knowledge Bases Australia. Proponents of 5 Category Condition Rating Systems argue that they are simple to apply in the field and that it too difficult to identify the difference between assets in adjoining condition categories in a ten category system, e. The International Infrastructure Management Manual gives the following example of a 5 category system.
A significant number of Councils particularly in NSW are using this manual as a defacto standard for developing their asset management plan and activities. One advantage of the above approach is that all asset lives need not be reset to one of five distinct values following a condition inspection program.
This methodology has the advantages of the simplicity of a 5 point system without the problems caused by it, i. The proponents of 10 Category Condition Rating Systems argue that a 5 point scale is too coarse.
That, if 1 is brand new and 5 is unserviceable there are only three other scores to choose from. LG Asset Program promotes an eleven category condition rating system.
There would be only very slight condition decline but it would be obvious that the asset was no longer in new condition. The condition deterioration would be quite obvious. Asset serviceability would now be affected and maintenance cost would be rising. Maintenance cost would be very high and the asset would at a point where it needed to be rehabilitated.
There would be an extreme risk in leaving the asset in service. This has the advantage of a direct relationship to remaining useful life instead of a reverse one.How to grade your cards
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Something does not work as expected? Find out what you can do. General Wikidot.Loops are used to repeat a block of code for a known or unknown number of times, depending on the type of loop.
Using loops, you will draw some nice pictures of fractals and shapes drawn with random dots. We use for loops to repeat a block of code for a list of known values. As an example, we'll calculate the mean of a list of values.
The mean is calculated from. Line 2: Set sum equal to 0. Line 3: For each value in x, assign it to entry. Line 4: Increment sum by entry. Line 5: Ends the for loop when there are no more members of x. You can download the code that generates this fractal from [ 2shared.
Note that this code uses one very simple for loop to generate the fractal:. The while loop also executes a block of code more than once but stops based on a logical condition. For example. As long as the condition holds is truethe loop will continue executing. As soon as it is false, the loop terminates and the first instruction after the loop is executed.
The Mandelbrot set is another fractal and is generated by checking how long it takes a complex number to become large. For each complex number, c.
We record all of these i values and assign a colour to each of them. This is used to generate an image like this one. You can download the code that generates this fractal from Mandelbrot. Note that there is a while loop inside some for loops that tests whether the complex number z has modulus less than The first condition in the while loop checks that we do not perform too many iterations.
For some values of c the iteration will go on forever if we let it. See also another version by Christopher Wellons.Overview The situation in Iraq remains volatile after years of wars, sanctions and conflicts. Nevertheless, the people of Iraq are still suffering the consequences of economic stagnation and reduced access to essential services. Retrieved Country Profile.
Octave Programming Tutorial/Loops and conditions
Print Email. More than half of the urban population lives in slum-like conditions. Bythe population will grow to almost 50 million, which will put further strains on access to adequate housing. Iraq is considered one of the most youthful countries in the world with nearly half of its population being less than 21 years old. Women in Iraq are underrepresented in the higher levels of the public sector and government. The participation of women in politics remains below the target level.
Violence, traditional societal views of women, insecurity and weak performance of state functions are affecting the role of Iraqi women in rebuilding the country. The percentage of women in paid employment in the non-agricultural sector has risen from Approximately 35, refugees are registered inside Iraq, mostly Palestinians, Syrians and Iranians.
IDP and returnee families cite access to services like employment, shelter, health, water and fuel as a priority need. Education at all levels is hindered by outdated curricula and teaching methods and poor infrastructure. Iraq has made steady progress enrolling children in primary education.
The percentage of enrollment rose from Access to quality primary healthcare has improved, but primary healthcare centres remain out of reach for many Iraqis. The proportion of children dying within the first year of life has dropped from 50 to 35 for every 1, live births.
The amount of water available per person per year decreased from 5, cubic metres in to 2, cubic metres in Except for Turkey, Iraq has more available water than its neighbours.
As a result, the country is exposed to a range of environmental issues, including drought, desertification and increasing soil salinity. The years of conflict and violence left chemical pollution and unexploded ordnances affecting the livelihoods and safety of an estimated 1.
Electricity Electricity supplies are unreliable, with the public network on average only able to supply eight hours of power to Iraqi households per day, even during periods of low demand; on average, households receive According to the Ministry of Electricity, Iraq is generating 8, of themega-watts of power currently required to meet Iraqi needs today.
Iraq currently produces 2. Iraq has billion barrels of oil reserves and a potential further billion barrels identified and recoverable. Iraq has 3, billion standard cubic metres of gas reserves. Most Popular.The condition index in fish is a way to measure the overall health of a fish by comparing its weight with the typical weight of other fish of the same kind and of the same length.
A fish of normal weight has a condition index of percent. So if a tarponfor example, has a condition index of percent, that would mean it is above the normal weight for an average tarpon of that length. If a tarpon has a condition index of 92 percent, that would mean that it is thinner, or below the normal weight of other tarpon that length.
The condition index depends on how much a fish is eating compared to the energy it has to spend to live, migrate, reproduce, and do its other activities. The condition index for fish is a simple measurement that can be used to provide important biological information that can then be used to make better management decisions.
The condition index in fish is a way to measure the overall health of a fish by comparing its weight with the average weight of other fish of the same length and kind. Some weight-length relationships are for a group of the same fish from a certain location; others are developed from lots of data from different locations and represent a more general result.
Spring and Fall. To compute the condition index of an individual fish, it must be weighed and its length measured. Some weight-length relationships use the total length of the fish while others use the fork length. It is important to measure the same kind of length that the reference relationship uses. It is also important to have the weight and length in the same units as the reference relationship. The reference weight-length formula is used to calculate how much the individual fish would be expected to weigh based on its measured length.
Since the condition index is used to assess the health of fish, it is important to have a reliable reference weight-length relationship. For example, a red drum Sciaenops ocellatus caught in the spring in waters off of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, U. Consider one red drum that is millimeters long and has a weight of grams.
Based on the reference weight-length relationship, a red drum that is mm long is expected to have a weight of grams. The fish in this example is below its expected weight, and a scientist might then look for more information to find out if other red drum in the area are also below expected weight.
If red drum in the study area tend to be below expected weight, then the scientist might further investigate why this might be. Even though it is a simple calculation once a good weight-length relationship is available, the condition index has several important applications. For example, it can be used to compare the health of a specific group of fish to an accepted standard.
It can be used to track the health of a group of fish as a function of size for example, one might see a jump in condition index when a fish is big enough to eat larger prey. Condition index can also be used to compare the relative health of two competing types of fish in the same body of water. Barakat and colleagues  used condition index to measure the effectiveness of different feeding programs in aquaculture of juvenile spinefoot rabbitfish.
Condition index in fish can be used to make management decisions such as fishing limits in specific areas. For example, Ratz and Lloret observed that Atlantic cod living in colder waters, such as Greenland, Labrador and Grand Bank, were in poorer condition than cod living in warmer waters such as the North Sea and Irish Sea.Biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem services to which human well-being is intimately linked.
No feature of Earth is more complex, dynamic, and varied than the layer of living organisms that occupy its surfaces and its seas, and no feature is experiencing more dramatic change at the hands of humans than this extraordinary, singularly unique feature of Earth.
This layer of living organisms—the biosphere—through the collective metabolic activities of its innumerable plants, animals, and microbes physically and chemically unites the atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere into one environmental system within which millions of speciesincluding humans, have thrived. It follows that large-scale human influences over this biota have tremendous impacts on human well-being. It also follows that the nature of these impacts, good or bad, is within the power of humans to influence CF2.
Defining Biodiversity. It explicitly recognizes that every biota can be characterized by its taxonomic, ecological, and genetic diversity and that the way these dimensions of diversity vary over space and time is a key feature of biodiversity. Thus only a multidimensional assessment of biodiversity can provide insights into the relationship between changes in biodiversity and changes in ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services CF2.
Biodiversity includes all ecosystems—managed or unmanaged. Sometimes biodiversity is presumed to be a relevant feature of only unmanaged ecosystemssuch as wildlands, nature preserves, or national parks.
This is incorrect. Measuring Biodiversity : Species Richness and Indicators. In spite of many tools and data sources, biodiversity remains difficult to quantify precisely. But precise answers are seldom needed to devise an effective understanding of where biodiversity is, how it is changing over space and time, the drivers responsible for such change, the consequences of such change for ecosystem services and human well-beingand the response options available.
Even more important would be to estimate turnover of biodiversity, not just point estimates in space or time. Currently, it is not possible to do this with much accuracy because the data are lacking. Even for the taxonomic component of biodiversity, where information is the best, considerable uncertainty remains about the true extent and changes in taxonomic diversity C4.
There are many measures of biodiversity ; species richness the number of species in a given area represents a single but important metric that is valuable as the common currency of the diversity of life—but it must be integrated with other metrics to fully capture biodiversity.
Because the multidimensionality of biodiversity poses formidable challenges to its measurement, a variety of surrogate or proxy measures are often used. These include the species richness of specific taxa, the number of distinct plant functional types such as grasses, forbs, bushes, or treesor the diversity of distinct gene sequences in a sample of microbial DNA taken from the soil.
Species- or other taxon-based measures of biodiversity, however, rarely capture key attributes such as variability, function, quantity, and distribution—all of which provide insight into the roles of biodiversity. See Box 1.In reliability engineeringthe term availability has the following meanings:. Availability of a system is typically calculated as a function of its reliabilitymaintainability and its redundancy. As reliability increases and as redundancy increases, so does availability.
As maintenance downtime decreases availability increases. Availability of a system may also be increased by the strategy of focusing on minimizing downtime by increasing testability, diagnostics and maintainability. Improving maintainability during the early design phase is generally easier than reliability. Maintainability estimates item repair [by replacement] rates are also generally more accurate.
However, because the uncertainties in the reliability estimates are in most cases very large, it is likely to dominate the availability and the prediction uncertainty problem, even while maintainability levels are very high. Furthermore, when reliability is not under control, then many and different sorts of issues may arise, for example:. For high levels of system availability, such as the availability of engine thrust in an aircraft, the use of redundancy may be the best option to reduce the system failure rate.
Refer to reliability engineering. Reliability needs to be evaluated and improved related to both availability and the cost of ownership due to cost of spare parts, maintenance man-hours, transport costs, storage cost, part obsolete risks etc. Often a trade-off is needed between the two. There might be a maximum ratio between availability and cost of ownership.
The maintenance strategy can influence the reliability of a system e. So, Maintainability and Maintenance strategies influences the availability of a system. In theory this can be almost unlimited if one would be able to always repair any fault in an infinitely short time.
This is in practice impossible. Repair-ability is always limited due to testability, manpower and logistic considerations. Reliability is not limited. An availability plan should clearly provide a strategy for availability control. Whether only Availability or also Cost of Ownership is more important depends on the use of the system.
For example, a system that is a critical link in a production system — e. The simplest representation of availability A is a ratio of the expected value of the uptime of a system to the aggregate of the expected values of up and down time, or. Average availability must be defined on an interval of the real line.For structural use in bridges these products are inevitably cut to size and shape and weldedone component to another. In the structure, the material is subject to tensile and compressive forces.
All these aspects of steel material are utilised by the designer of a steel bridge. The selection of an appropriate grade of steel for a bridge requires an awareness of the steel manufacturing process, an appreciation of the relevant product standards and design specifications, and an understanding of several issues including material properties, availability and cost.
This article provides designers with background information and specific guidance on how to select an appropriate steel grade and quality, and on how the structural steel products for a bridge are specified in accordance with the Structural Eurocodes.
Steel derives its material properties from a combination of chemical composition, mechanical working and heat treatment.
The chemical composition is fundamental to the mechanical properties of steel. Adding alloys such as Carbon, Manganese, Niobium and Vanadium can increase the strength.
However, such alloy additions increase the cost of the steel, and can adversely affect other properties i. Keeping the sulphur level low can enhance the ductilityand the toughness can be improved by the addition of Nickel.
Hence, the chemical composition for each steel specification has been carefully chosen to achieve the required properties. Plates and sections are produced by rolling steel slabs, blooms or billets at a high temperature until the required plate or section size is achieved.
This rolling is the mechanical working that refines the grain structure and determines the mechanical properties. The more steel is rolled, the stronger it becomes.
This effect is readily apparent in material standards, which specify reducing levels of minimum yield strength with increasing material thickness. However, although rolling increases the strength, it also reduces the ductility of the steel. The effect of heat treatment is best explained by reference to the different production processes or rolling regimes that can be used in steel manufacturingthe main ones being:. Structural sections generally achieve the required mechanical properties through this efficient production route, but plates usually require further heat treatment.
This process refines the grain size and improves the mechanical properties, specifically the toughness.
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It renders the properties more uniform, and removes residual rolling strains. This has a similar effect on the properties as Normalizing, but it eliminates a process. The mechanical properties of particular importance to the bridge designer include:. All structural steels are essentially weldable. However, welding involves locally heating the steel material, which subsequently cools. The significance of this effect increases as the plate thickness increases.
The susceptibility to embrittlement also depends on the alloying elements, principally, but not exclusively, on the carbon content. The CEN product standards e. EN  give an expression for determining this value, and specify mandatory limits on the maximum CEV.